Determining the Role of Fe-Doping on Promoting the Thermochemical Energy Storage Performance of (Mn1−xFex)3O4 Spinels, A. J. Carrillo, L. E. Chinchilla, A. Iglesias‐Juez, S. Gutiérrez‐Rubio, D. Sastre, P. Pizarro, A. B. Hungría, J. M. Coronado, Small Methods, 5 (10), 2100550, 2021, Online version,


Mn oxides are promising materials for thermochemical heat store, but slow reoxidation of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 limits efficiency. In contrast, (Mn1−xFex)3O4 oxides show an enhanced transformation rate, but fundamental understanding of the role played by Fe cations is lacking. Here, nanoscale characterization of Fe-doped Mn oxides is performed to elucidate how Fe incorporation influences solid-state transformations. X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of two distinct spinel phases, cubic jacobsite and tetragonal hausmannite for samples with more than 10% of Fe. Chemical mapping exposes wide variation of Fe content between grains, but an even distribution within crystallites. Due to the similarities of spinels structures, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy cannot discriminate unambiguously between them, but Fe-enriched crystallites likely correspond to jacobsite. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms that increasing Fe content up to 20% boosts the reoxidation rate, leading to the transformation of Mn2+ in the spinel phase to Mn3+ in bixbyite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure shows that Fe-O length is larger than Mn-O, but both electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure indicate that iron is always present as Fe3+ in octahedral sites. These structural modifications may facilitate ionic diffusion during bixbyite formation.